Staff Development Day Presentation: The Fundamentals of World Class Instruction

Hey TKD Professionals,

When I think about summer, I think of many things…

Taking long cycling rides in beautiful weather…
Relaxing by the pool…

Enjoying barbecues and picnics…

Having extra time to develop my staffs skill sets mindsets and camaraderie!
Is that last one new for you?
If it is, this week’s zoom call might change that for you. 
To me, there is no better investment of time than improving how my team understands our target market, communicates their messages, and provides outstanding customer service.

That’s why, one of the things that we always include in our calendar for the summer is additional training time with our staff.

On today’s zoom call I gave a one hour presentation that we recently provided to our team.You can use this as a standalone staff meeting, or even better include it as part of a multi session event that you run with your instructors. Either way you’ll be well on your way to helping your staff to deliver on the promises you make to your students.

I hope you enjoy this presentation and I look forward to hearing how it is received! 

Facebook Marketing Interview with Master Matt Tracy

Hello TKD Professionals!

Today I had the honor and pleasure of interviewing Master Matt Tracy.

He is a full time school director at UMAC in Briarcliff, N.Y.

He led the charge as his dojang rebounded back from the Pandemic and enrolled

over 170 students in 8 months!

But, unlike what you might expect, Master Tracy isn’t a “sales at all cost” type of leader.

Instead, he is a very sincere, caring and passionate instructor who believes in the benefits of Taekwondo,

and who is dedicated to helping more families to take advantage of it.

.Over the course of this interview you will learn ...

  • Facebook targeting strategies
  • The “Hook, Story, Offer” framework that create a more effective ad
  • How to create a sale funnel that builds greater commitment at each step
  • Tips for building rapport with children
  • Great scripts for describing how Taekwondo develops confidence and self esteem as well as discipline and respect
  • A complete trial lesson format designed to demonstrate positive outcomes right before the parents eyes.
  • Making the transition to closing the sale simply and naturally

This call is full of practical tips that will boost your sales confidence and success immediately.

Watch and learn today!


Do you really understand your students?

Hey TKD Professionals!
We had a great Zoom this week on one of my favorite topics.
It was about understanding and communicating to our target market.
I’m humble enough to admit that similar to Taekwondo, this is a subject that I will never truly master.
And that’s what makes it so interesting!
I enjoy learning what  motivates people to take action on improving their lives or the lives of their children.
And, I also know that when I truly understand what they want and need, that it helps me to establish how we should best teach and service them.
This particular zoom call will provide you will many thought provoking questions and tools to improve your
target market vocabulary.
As a result, you will gain a valuable skill that you can apply to face to face sales, marketing messages, and customer service.
The system I teach requires time, effort and deliberate thought. So please use the “FRED” sheets that I have included to help you to grow your knowledge.
Good luck!

CELEBRATE the return of Birthday Parties

Hello TKD Professionals! 

For a long time I have shared with our students that there are two types of learning…

  1. Learning something completely new, such as a new kick or form that you have never seen before
  2. Learning to understand more deeply and to perform better, something you have been taught previously, such as improving the timing you have when you twist a punch or the way that you shift your weight in a stance. 

In my experience, it is through combining both of these forms of learning that ongoing progression occurs. 

This weeks Zoom call illustrates this concept perfectly. 

Virtually all school owners have already learned the concept of birthday parties. 

Yet, my guest, Master Chris Polilli, the general manager of Master Chang’s Martial Arts nine locations, was able to provide all of us with a fresh look and new ideas that can enhance our success. 

In this interview he explains: 

  • 3 evergreen ways to promote parties to current students throughout the year so that excitedly register to celebrate their party at the dojang
  • How to promote birthday parties outside your school including crucial reminder to get results from Groupon 
  • Highlights of how parties should be adjusted for different age groups 
  • Why Master Chang’s does demonstrations at the beginning of the party and why you should too 
  • Great examples of powerful messaging  that will educate and influence parents in the audience 
  • Tips for selling a trial package to 50% of the party guests 

There’s certainly ideas for everyone in this call! 

Watch it today and apply your favorite concepts to the next party you host! 

It’s Time to Bring Back Friends!

I’m sure that you have had this same experience…
Students and families have been letting myself and my staff know just how INCREDIBLY HELPFUL our dojang has been to them during the past year.
Clearly we have been more than just an activity to participate in…
We (and you) provided a much needed community full of support, enthusiasm and fun.
I daresay that that all ages of students probably dealt with the Pandemic more easily than their friends and neighbors who did not have Taekwondo in their lives.
Therefore, our students should have an even greater recognition of just how valuable their dojang is to their physical and mental health.
And, they know and understand just how challenging the lockdowns and restrictions imposed by COVID have been to our small business.
So, now is a great time to ask for their support to bring a friend to your dojang!
In this week’s Zoom call I provide:
  • Several marketing examples
  • How to customize your announcements for various groups
  • Ideas for giveaways
  • Tips for a better class format
  • The importance of and process for following up
The only thing this call doesn’t do is schedule your event for you.
So watch the recording and get your Bring a Friend Days scheduled right away!

20 New Students per month during the Pandemic! An interview with Tom Sroka, World Class Taekwondo, San Jose, CA

We are all in this together!
Thank is the feeling I had as I listened to Mr. Tom Sroka graciously share the “secret formula” that has allowed his dojang to thrive under the most difficult of circumstances.
Located in San Jose, California, his area was one of the first to require “shelter in place” and one of the last to allow students to attend indoor classes.
Yet, Mr. Sroka and team continued to teach nearly 600 students in their parking lot, conducted special events, and have averaged 20 + new students per month since July!
In his interview Mr Sroka shares:
✅ His attitude towards offering World Class student service and how it “saved” his dojang
✅How he keeps his staff motivated and ambitious including an innovative book reading assignment
✅Tips for running a monthly Bring a Friend day that is creating 6-7 new enrollments each time
✅Successful Facebook ad strategies that are generating dozens if leads each week
✅The change he made to his sales process that resulted in a 13% improvement in closing sales
These were all highly actionable ideas that any school can implement and benefit from.
So watch, learn and APPLY these great ideas!


How to Run a COVID Safe Tournament

I was so excited to host an in- house tournament for over 450 of our students last weekend.
And I was equally excited to share the entire process on our Zoom call!
I am sure that all of you have been DYING for a return to normalcy including the thrill of competition day.
In my opinion, you don’t have to wait any longer.
Review the video and materials carefully, and you could be hosting your own event within the next six weeks!
I KNOW that your students, families, and staff will love it, just like ours did.
And remember, if you have any questions, our TKD Professionals team is here to help you every step of the way.
Good luck and have fun!

[VIDEO] – Sample Registration Form [PNG] – Sample Rules [PDF] – Sample Staff Meeting Notes [PDF] – Sample Pre-Competition Welcome Speech [PDF] – Sample Pre-Event Announcement [PDF] – E-mail Series [PDF] – App/Text Reminders [PDF] – Sample Zoom Poster [PDF]

Why You Should Run a Summer Camp in 2021

We are all in this together!
I say that in a very positive way after the great Zoom call that we had yesterday with a panel of energetic TKD professionals from all around the U.S sharing their ideas for 2021 summer camps.
We learned that there are many different ways to structure your camp hours and registration with options available regardless of your facility or staffing size.
We heard a TON of great marketing ideas, and were reminded of the importance of an online and offline multi channel approach in order to maximize response. (I created a handy checklist for this and included it below).
And, we had a great deal of fun hearing creative ideas for fun activities that are easy to keep kids moving and laughing (“noodle sparring” and “pizza and burpees” for example 😂)
Much thanks and appreciation to my guests…
Master Nam Kim
Master Jennifer Choe
Master Nico Martinez
Master Angie Perrier
Ms. Jennifer Parlier
So watch this Zoom call and implement their great ideas to improve your summer camp success!

[VIDEO] – Multi Channel Marketing Campaign Checklist [PDF]

Keeping Your Students & Your Reputation Safe

This week my Zoom call was a very special presentation on a sensitive topic. How to Keep Your Students and Your Reputation Safe.

In it, I present strategies and scripts for decreasing the risk of an inappropriate staff and student interaction.

I include:

✅ Social Media Guidelines

✅ Rules regarding physical touch

✅ Dating policies

✅ Staff training recommendations

✅ And a whole segment on proper communication strategies in the event that you ever have to deal with an incident.

This is vital information that all owners and instructors should know, and definitely a case where PREVENTION is better than CURE.Special thanks to my colleagues, Master Chan Lee & Master Jay Lee who contributed policies for this presentation. 🙏

This is one case where i encourage you NOT to keep this specialized information a secret.Instead, please share it with as many TKD Masters and instructors as possible so that we can rid our industry of this terrible problem.I thank you in advance for your leadership!

[VIDEO] – Accompanying Handout [PDF] – Letter to Students [PDF] – Media Statement [PDF]

How to Conduct a CORE Meeting

The importance of effective communication for productive teamwork is well known. Yet, opening the lines of communication and keeping them open between staff members can be a daunting task. Workplace pressures, frustrations, and lack of clarity can all cause staff to stop sharing their thoughts with one another. When this happens the negative impact on the school atmosphere and success can be severe. That’s why I urge you to host a CORE meeting with your staff on an annual basis. As an acronym, CORE stands for Communicating Our Relationship/Responsibility Expectations.  
In this week’s Zoom call I take you step by step through the process including how to manage any negative emotions that come up, how to stay on topic, and the importance of following up on the information that staff members share. 
I know this will enhance the strength of your team! 

[VIDEO] – Accompanying Handout [PDF] – CORE Participation Questionnaire [PDF] – CORE Facilitator Guidelines and Reminders [PDF] 

The Complete VIP Referral

[VIDEO] – Handout [PDF] – App/Text Messaging [PDF] – VIP Script (COVID Version) [PDF] – VIP Lead Follow-up E-mail [PDF] – VIP Lead Follow-up E-mail #2 [PDF] – VIP Launch Letter [PDF] – VIP Facebook Series with Text [PDF] – VIP Facebook Series with Text #2 [PDF] – VIP Facebook Series with Text #2 [PDF]

Atomic Habits Workshop

Over the course of 90 minutes, we  reviewed, discussed, and applied the concepts in the book Atomic Habits to help everyone to achieve more of their personal and professional goals in 2021.
We shared examples, stories, and a few laughs, and realized that we all are prone to the same challenges and mistakes. We also are a a part of one “tribe” with whom we can be open, transparent, and learn from.
I had a great experience, and I look forward to doing it again!
If you have not read the book yet, then I encourage you to take the time to do so or to purchase and listen to the audio read by the author. I guarantee it will become one of your favorite and most helpful self education experiences ever!
Then, watch the replay of our workshop and complete the activities to implement the powerful strategies for change.

[VIDEO] – Handout [PDF] – Personal Scorecard [PDF] – Weekly Planner [PDF]


Year End Reflections

Learn my top 5 takeaways from 2020 of changes you MUST adopt in your business. Plus my 5 Biggest personal recommendations to help you with your own personal development in 2021.

[Video] – Handout [PDF]

How to Host an Online Tournament

If someone had asked you if you could run classes, enroll students, and conduct belt testing all via Zoom last year you  would have said it was  impossible.
Now, as a result of the Pandemic, and the necessity to pivot and persevere, you have all proven that you could do exactly that.
Many of us have even determined that some changes may even stay with us after the Pandemic is over.
For me, I don’t think I will ever meet with an outside salesperson in person ever again, and I love being able to meet “face to face” with the staff of one of our locations, even if I don’t have the time to drive out to their area of our city. (I do look forward to physically training together again though! 💪)
One other area that many school owners are proving to be possible is hosting an online tournament. And this week my interview guests, Grandmaster Sung Chul Kim and Mr. William Estey provide the exact details that allowed them to register, organize, conduct and thrill over 400 students for their Virtual Championship.
So watch and learn and don’t be intimidated by the technical details! As a TKD Professional you are a lifelong learner and you know that through focus and determination you can learn to do anything. I’m sure your students will thank you for your efforts and enjoy their online tournament experience.

[Video] – Master Kim Handout [PDF] – Mr. Estey Handout [PDF] – Rules and Regulations [PDF] 

Preparing for Another Shutdown

Included in this weeks discussion are some ideas for improving your Zoom class structure, how to communicate with your members, and some great scripts for videos that you can use on social media or your website immediately.

[Video] – Handout [PDF]

Best Family Add on Year Ever

As we head into the holiday season two things are true…

First, the impact of COVID-19 continues to impact our country and our industry.

But second, many families are doing their best to adjust to the “new normal”.

They intend to buy gifts, decorate their homes, and celebrate (though likely in smaller groups).

And across the entire country, everyone has given more thought to the importance of their health and of their family.

And this is where we can be of help.

In our dojangs we have the opportunity to provide a safe, controlled, low volume environment to work out.

AND we can also provide the experience of families enjoying a common interest, working on common goals, and sharing some smiles and laughter along the way.

This is why I passionately believe that this is the best opportunity EVER for you to encourage and create additional enrollments in the form of family add-ons.

Adding more family members into your dojang will boost your revenue and retention. Plus it feels great to see parents, children, and siblings enjoying Taekwondo side by side.

[Video] – Handout [PDF]

Retention is more important than ever before

Here is my retention presentation from the TKD Leaders conference. Learn how to update your enrollment procedures, membership types, feedback, special events, and student tracking to minimize dropouts and maximize lifelong students.

[Video] – Handout [PDF]

Coronavirus – October 22nd Zoom Call: Leading Your Staff into Battle

Your staff are passionate and committed.

They have stood by you during the tremendous upheaval that has occurred as a result of COVID-19.

How can you be the best leader for them for the continuing battle that lies ahead?

How do you provide direction when you don’t have all the answers?

How high should you set your expectations for your staff?

Do you know how to keep your staff motivated and functioning as a team?

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]

Coronavirus – October 8th Zoom Call: Enter the Holidays

The holidays season is starting. Many stores and businesses are decorating for Halloween at the minimum, and some places have Christmas items for sale already too! I guess it shows that even in the midst of a pandemic that people (and businesses) intend to continue celebrating the holidays out of tradition and to provide a sense of normalcy.

What does this mean for us? Well it means that we need to find our own way to celebrate the holidays and to conduct special events with our students and families. The procedures will need to be different, the crowd sizes will have to be smaller, and creativity will have to be applied. But the essential principle will remain the same.

We host and conduct events to keep our students excited and to enhance their connection with our dojang and with one another. So join me as I share more details about our plans for an updated:
💥 Halloween Celebration
💥Parents Workshop
💥 Fundraiser for our Children’s Hospital
💥 Holiday Apparel Sale
And more!

I promise that setting up some special events is worth the extra time and effort by you and your staff. Both you and your students will enjoy a change of pace from your regular activities and it’s a great way to demonstrate how special and unique your business is.

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]

Coronavirus – October 2nd Zoom Call: Interview with Beth Block

Join me for an interview with Beth Block about protecting yourself from liability and the risk of lawsuits. Beth is a phenomenal resource to the Martial arts industry. She works with over 500 martial arts schools. In this quick interview, our discussion will have you rethinking some of your day to day procedures and redesigning them for the better.

[ZOOM Call]

Coronavirus – September 24th Zoom Call: 5 Things to Do Now!

Whenever I think of what it takes to achieve success, I think about he importance of having a well thought out plan. But rarely is it the case where the plan is rigid and to be followed without question.

This has been particularly true in the COVID-19 era. For all of us, our goals have likely changed this year. On our live Zoom call this week, I discuss 5 specific strategies that I feel need to be part of your plan NOW.

They include: 

  • Updating your marketing message
  • Modifying your sales process
  • Communicating with your Tribe
  • “Plussing” your service
  • Growing your Staff 

As you can tell, these five strategies will affect every area of your dojang operation.

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]

Coronavirus – September 10th Zoom Call: Finding Opportunity In The Midst Of The Pandemic: Interview with Grandmaster Keith Winkle

From a childhood fraught with uncertainty and limitations, Keith Winkle overcame all obstacles to be come a martial arts Grandmaster and highly successful school owner.

In recent months the character and mindset that he cultivated has served him well, as his dojang, Inspire Martial Arts, was shut down for six months as a result of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Grandmaster Winkle shares his motivating perspective and inspiring course of action that has allowed him to stay focused and optimistic.

[ZOOM Call]


Coronavirus – August 25th Zoom Call: How to Launch a Digital Learning Camp

Offering a Digital Learning Camp may or may not be allowed or right for everyone. But I encourage you to listen through this material. It might show you that you have more options than you thought, and that it gives you a step by step process to get up and running more quickly than you may have imagined.

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]


Coronavirus – August 13th Zoom Call: Interview with Instructor Somi Parks

This week I has a great interview with Instructor Somi Parks. She and her fiancé Master Erik Magbanua operate two locations of Pro Taekwondo in Gainesville Florida (Go Gators!)

Over the past decade they have developed mutually beneficial relationships with 16 local elementary schools!

Through this discussion you will learn how to identify “allies”, connect with decision makers, craft your message, and provide a valuable service to your local schools.

As Instructor Somi explains, with budget cuts and lost fundraisers, schools need help more than ever. And of course schools kids can benefit hugely from our expertise in teaching confidence, anti bulling skills, and having a positive outlet for their stress and anxiety.

Watch this interview and gain a step by step plan to become a partner in education in your community!

[ZOOM Call]


Coronavirus – August 6th Zoom Call: Q & A Bonus Call

The range of questions covers every area of operations

  • COVID cleaning and disinfecting procedures and how they affect your class scheduling
  • what to do about membership options and pricing
  • how to sell with confidence while still responding to the commitment concerns that potential members may have
  • the difficulties of teaching learning challenged students and Little Tiger aged members through Zoom, and the importance of communicating and cooperating with their parents in order to do so successfully
  • thoughts on working with your local elementary schools in a variety of formats

[ZOOM Call]


Coronavirus – July 23rd Zoom Call: Is Your Dojang Firing on All Cylinders

This call was PACKED with practical action steps to take right now. Listen in and gain timely advice on maximizing your organic and paid and results on Google. Plus Facebook ad samples and strategies. Master Mertens also gives guidance on improving your VIP referral program, how to sell with confidence, and the research you need to do to be prepared in the event of a COVID-19 diagnosis for one of your staff or students.

You might want to watch this this Zoom call twice!

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]


Coronavirus – July 9th Zoom Call: Lessons Learned from Reopening Week 1

Listen in as Master Mertens shares the thought process behind class scheduling classroom format, social media management, and marketing tips once in person classes have restarted at your Dojang,

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]


Coronavirus – June 25th Zoom Call: Interview with Master Josh Arcemont

Together we discuss:

✅ How all masters can be a guide for their student’s own “hero’s journey”
✅ Tips for more enjoyable Zoom classes
✅ Great ideas for a belt testing process that gets parents involved
✅ The benefit of using guest instructors to teach your students (and yourself) something new
✅ Motivational messages for Black Belt candidates
✅ Maintaining a positive attitude in the face of ongoing challenges and uncertainty

Master Arcemont also mentions the book Building a StoryBrand by Donald Miller, and I highly recommend it as well. It provides a great “road map” to clarify and communicate the mission of your dojang to students and parents.

[ZOOM Call]


Coronavirus – June 18th Zoom Call: Rebuilding form Inside AND Out

Master Mertens discuss the importance of an “opportunity mindset”, and how it leads to greater innovation action,. He also provides strategies for welcoming back students and parents including adjusting expectations and setting new goals. Finally, he provides six powerful marketing activities that every Dojang should be doing NOW.

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]


Coronavirus – June 4th Zoom Call: Online and Offline Marketing

What you need to be doing Online and Offline to EDUCATE, MOTIVATE, and GAIN new students

  • Low cost grassroots methods
  • Social Media strategies
  • Email messaging
  • Extra time for Q & A
  • Get the answers you need to keep moving forward!

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]


Coronavirus – June 4th Zoom Call: Dojang Open

Interview with Ms. Jennifer Parlier from Master Shim’s World Class Taekwondo

[ZOOM Call]


Coronavirus – May 29th Zoom Call: Back to Business

The week we discuss selling fundamentals, how to schedule and conduct renewal appointments, and sales vocabulary. Plus more tips for landlord negotiation.

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]


Coronavirus – May 22nd Zoom Call

Join me with special guest, Master Justin Scarsella, from World Class Taekwondo in Birmingham. Alabama was one of the first states to allow martial arts schools to reopen, and Master Scarsella, is leading the way in more ways than one.

We will discuss student communication, updated cleaning and classroom procedures, and how students are responding to the new ways of doing business.

[ZOOM Call]


Coronavirus – May 14th Zoom Call

It’s Time for The Reopening GAME PLAN

  • What to Do and What to Avoid
  • How to create a balanced schedule of in person and Zoom classes
  • The messages you need to be communicating to your landlord right now!
  • Answers to your most important questions

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]

Coronavirus – May 7th Zoom Call

Master Mertens discusses the importance of replays, breakout rooms, and managing expectations for online classes. Learn how to update your online marketing to MATCH what our target market is looking for now! Plus the six step process to reopen regardless of your current status.

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]

Coronavirus – April 30th Zoom Call

Service Enhancements/Metrics to Watch/FBPost Ideas/Community Marketing

This call is full of ideas that you can use immediately. It includes the “textable tip”, templates for Facebook posts that will motivate your students, email scripts to send to non attending students, and several tools to help you with a free community class.

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]

Coronavirus – April 23rd Zoom Call

Tips and discussion on: 

  • Are you monitoring the correct statistics?
  • More guidance on promoting your community class.
  • Thoughts as some States start to reopen.
  • Plus Q and A to make sure you are getting the information you need to keep moving forward!

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]

Coronavirus – April 16th Zoom Call

This week’s topics include

  • Lessons leaned from testing 200 students online
  • The results of making student service calls
  • The “Earn Your Yellow Belt” promotion
  • How you can offer a community class as a fundraiser to combat COVID- 19

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]

Coronavirus – April 9th Zoom Call

More discussion on: 

  • How to protect your students from “Zoombombing” 
  • Next steps with landlord negotiation 
  • What I decided to do for makeup testing, belt testing, and tip testing moving forward 
  • Starting ideas for marketing and special events for your virtual dojang

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]

Coronavirus – April 2nd Zoom Call

More discussion on: 

  • Online Class Best Practices 
  • Ideas for Tip and Belt Testing 
  • Making sure you get Federal Aid

[ZOOM Call] – Slideshow [PDF]

Time for a Service Checkup

How is the customer service at your dojang?

I’m sure that you and you staff are friendly and enthusiastic. After all you love what you do, you love your students, and Taekwondo itself is fun and exciting to learn.

But is that enough?

  • Have you created a truly remarkable service experience that students and families are alway telling their friends about?
  • Do you know how to ensure that every student feels welcomed and special, even if they aren’t a top performer?
  • Do you have a system to create extra peaks of customer enjoyment throughout the year?


  • Do you have a service recovery formula for handling a dissatisfied customer when you or you team do make a mistake?

To me, these are the essentials of a complete customer service system…and this week I’ll share the exact methods that I’ve used to keep our 1,800 students happy, motivated and referring others to our dojang.

[VIDEO] [Audio Only MP3][Related PDF]

Summer Camp Success with Master Mimi Hwang

As the operations director for Hwang’s Martial Arts three locations in Kentucky, Master Mimi Hwang has hands on experience with creating themes, daily programming, arranging field trips, and coordinating staff for their highly successful summer camp.

If you already run a camp, you will be sure to gain some new ideas. If you don’t have one yet, this call can help to give you a blueprint to follow.

Watch and gather some great ideas for marketing your camp, fun mat games, popular themes, and the importance of being authentic and transparent when communicating with our target market.

[VIDEO] [Audio Only MP3]

Master Motivator – Paul Melella

Grandmaster Paul Melella has had incredible success in all areas of Taekwondo. He is an accomplished competitor and coach and a passionate instructor who knows how to motivate students to bring out their potential. He has also expanded his business to include real estate and executive coaching. In this interview, Grandmaster Melella provides incredible tips for more effective birthday party marketing, and his proven methods for goal achievement.


The “Five Decisions”

Master Mertens discusses five of the most important decisions that he has made that have influenced his success and longevity in the TKD field. These guiding principles will be valuable to you regardless of what stage your dojang is currently in.

[VIDEO] [Related PDF]